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Types of Assessments–to get you thinking

Generally speaking there are two types of assessments in learning: formative and summative. Formative assessments provide useful feedback to the student and are used for the purposes of increasing understanding. Summative assessments measure achievement. In traditional courses, students are given points for formative assessments and summative assessments. However, in the case of true outcomes based education, especially  CBL,  formative assessments should not receive points as they not measure mastery, but help build mastery. Formative assessments involve self-assessment and/or practice of competencies.

Let’s look at specific activities and assessments to see how this works in true outcomes based learning (competency based).

Tests:
Q: Can a test be used to measure a competency?
A: Yes, with caveats. It cannot be an open book test, must have a time limit. Students should not be able to change answers, or be allowed multiple attempts if the test is measuring a competency. It is best to have each question on it’s own page and not allow backtracking. They should be built using ell-constructed questions to measure competency.

Q: What kind of competencies can a test measure?
A: Tests are particularly good for measuring knowledge, or being able to define terms. For example if a competency states: Student will be able to identify the parts of a cell and their function.

Q: When do points apply to tests?
A: Test and quizzes can be wonderful tools for self-evaluations, practice, and even for teaching content especially if they include comprehensive feedback, and (in the case of practice and teaching) allow for multiple attempts. However, these formative assessments should not have points associated with them. When tests are used to measure a competency, they should have points associated with them. The points should be an indicator of the weight and level of the competency it is measuring. Generally, there should be an assignment somewhere in the course that measures the application of the knowledge the test is measuring. Since that assessment will measure both the knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge, it should have a greater weight.

Discussion Forums:

Q: Should discussion forums be eliminated from a CBL course
A: That depends. The problem with the construction of most discussion forums is that they require at least a small cohort of students who can take part in the discussion. Depending on the construction of a forum, it can be used to measure a competency (summative) or to develop deeper understanding (learning activity or formative assessment).

Q: How can a forum be used to measure competency?
A: Forums (or any social networking activity) requires a great deal of thought in design, and generally a great deal of time and effort on the part of faculty in monitoring the discussion. Here is an example of a competency that might be measured using a forum: “Student demonstrates the ability to debate and argue a case…” The difficulty comes when the courses are designed for self-paced learning. How does one debate if there is no one to debate with? We tackle that in the next question

Q: Can a forum be used in a self-paced course?
A: Yes, with a great deal of planning and assistance from technology. For example, if the technology can work like gaming rooms, a student can enter the forum and “wait” for another student (or group of students) to “enter” the room. This would require a course that is not completely linear, so students can go back to that module when there are enough students in the forum to make it work efficiently.

Research Papers:
Q: Can a research paper be used to demonstrate competency?
A: Yes, but again that depends on how the assignment is constructed and the competency it is measuring. In general they are a learning activity–the student dives deeply into a particular subject and learns about it. But if there is a competency for demonstrating the ability to find and cite sources then a research paper then the that assignment would be good method for assessing the competency. However, generally speaking, the assignment should also include a presentation of the research with an extensive Q & A session (defend their conclusions)—to insure the student has mastered the material, and not merely regurgitated material.

Homework:
Q: Should we assign points for homework?

A: Homework should never be used to measure an outcome/competency. Homework does not measure mastery. It is practice and therefore should not have points associated with it. Homework should, however, receive feedback or be followed by a practice quiz that provides feedback. (test for understanding)

Projects, Scenarios, Simulations:
Q: We use these for learning activities, but can they also be used for measuring mastery?
A: Yes, projects, scenarios, and simulations can provide for authentic (or close to authentic) summative assessments. With scenarios and simulations, there should be a small margin or error for demonstrating competency (or mastery). A scenario or simulation that was used for training purposes, should not be reused, as is, for assessment of mastery. They should be changed somewhat. Also, while there might’ve been hints or other feedback provided during the training, hints should not be allowed in the summative assessment. Projects should be constructed in such a way as to mimic one that a student would need to complete in the “real” world, with the same or similar expectations.

Interviews & Observations: live, video and audio:
Q: What other methods can be used for assessing competency?
A: Interviews are excellent methods for assessing mastery level learning, especially if the student is not given the questions beforehand and is not allowed to use notes. Observing the student, particularly in clinical/classroom/workplace environments are also excellent ways of measuring competency.

Q: Can observations also be a useful tool for helping students gain competency?
A: Yes, observations can be an excellent tool for learning. For example, when an athlete or performer watches a video of themselves, they can observe where they need improvement and/or what is working well for them. It is an excellent tool for self-assessment. For example, having students record themselves giving a speech, allows them to hear how many “ums” they say, as well as their cadence. When others use an observation to provide constructive feedback, it can also be an excellent learning tool.

Blogs and other forms of Journaling:

Q: What about blogs, reflections and personal journals–those are mostly for processing and learning, right?
A: Journals and blogs can be excellent tools for measuring certain types of competencies, especially when they are accompanied by an artifact of learning. For example, if a student in a language acquisition program creates an audio recording of themselves speaking in the language, and accompanies that with a reflection that includes: what they are saying, why they chose that, how it is expressed culturally, etc, you get a much better understanding of the student’s grasp of the language. Reflections and blog posts can also be powerful tools for assessing mastery gained in internships. For example, in a blog post the student can discuss their experiences and what they are learning. Tests can no be designed to measure somethings that only blog posts and personal reflections can reveal.

I hope you found this helpful. Feel free to post your suggestions in the comment section.


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